VKM (Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety), 2007. It has a role as an antimicrobial food preservative, an EC 3.1.1.3 (triacylglycerol lipase) inhibitor, an EC 1.13.11.33 ( arachidonate 15-lipoxygenase) inhibitor, a plant metabolite, a human xenobiotic metabolite, an algal metabolite and a drug allergen. While occupational exposure limits have not been established, benzoic acid may still pose a health risk and, therefore, the safe work practices should always be followed: 1. Acmc It is excreted as hippuric acid after conjugation with glycine in the liver. Benzoic acid itself has low toxicity, but there has been concern because of a potential reaction that converts it to benzene. Benzoic acid 210 is used in pharmaceuticals. Benzoic acid helps prevent bacteria from developing infections. It has been used with salicylic acid as a topical antifungal agent and in the treatment of athletes foot and ringworm 2 . Small amounts of phthalic acid can also be present. US Patent 3867439 A. EFSA ANS Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Additives and Nutrient Sources), 2011. Benzoic acid and its sodium and potassium salts are rapidly absorbed after oral administration. Benzoic Acid is used for Fungal infections of skin and other conditions. For children and adolescents, the main contributing food categories were confectionary, flavored drinks and processed fish and fishery products; while, for adults and the elderly, the main contributing food categories were processed fruit and vegetables and sauces. Learn more about Para-Aminobenzoic Acid (Paba) uses, effectiveness, possible side effects, interactions, dosage, user ratings and products that contain Para-Aminobenzoic Acid … Opinion of the Scientific Committee on Food on Benzoic acid and its salts SCF/CS/ADD/CONS/48 Final. 2005;43:329–334. It is a crystalline organic compound. Benzoic acid as a biocide (a chemical substance that destroys any harmful organism) was evaluated by Germany 27) and is permitted for this use according to EU Commission Implementing Regulation 1035/2013 28). http://www.hmdb.ca/metabolites/HMDB0001870, Scientific Opinion on the re-evaluation of benzoic acid (E 210), sodium benzoate (E 211), potassium benzoate (E 212) and calcium benzoate (E 213) as food additives. Compound Benzoic Acid Ointment is used for fungal infections of skin, skin fungal infections, lice and scabies infestations and other conditions. (Chang P and Ku K, 1993. Benzoic acid is an aromatic carboxylic acid naturally present in plant and animal tissues, which can also be produced by microorganisms. One of the components of toothpaste, mouthwash, and face wash creams is C 6 H 5. It is used as a medicine and in the manufacture of medicines. WHO Food Additives Series 37. WHO, Geneva. Benzoic acid is purified by rectification. It is used in the manufacture of dyes called aniline blue. Prepared by the 46th meeting of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA).Benzyl acetate, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and benzoic acid and its salts. To assess the dietary exposure to benzoic acid-benzoates (E 210–213) from their use as a food additive, the exposure was calculated based on (1) maximum permitted levels set out in the EU legislation (defined as the regulatory maximum level exposure assessment scenario) and (2) the reported use levels and analytical data (defined as the refined exposure assessment scenario). EFSA Journal 2011;9(7):2318, 73 pp. In a developmental toxicity study in rats with benzoic acid by gavage, a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 160 mg benzoic acid/kg body per day was observed for maternal and developmental toxicity The developmental toxicity studies in rats with sodium benzoate in the diet showed a no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) of 500 mg/kg body weight per day comparable to the NOAEL of the dietary four-generation reproductive toxicity in rats with benzoic acid. Benzene, p. 322. Sensors (Basel). EFSA CEF Panel (EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids), 2012. Appreciable amounts have been found in most berries (around 0. 05%). Purox and Kalama® Benzoate Preservatives Benzoic acid and its salts are highly effective preservatives to inhibit the growth of yeasts, bacteria, and molds in acidic food and beverage applications. Dietary exposure through this latter scenario was assessed using two sets of concentration data: reported use levels and analytical data not exceeding the maximum permitted levels for food categories for which direct addition of benzoic acid-benzoates is authorized; and reported use levels and analytical data not exceeding the maximum permitted levels for food categories for which direct addition of benzoic acid-benzoates is authorized and analytical data for food categories which may contain benzoic acid benzoates due to carry-over and for which data were available. This study showed no effect on growth, fertility, lactation or survival, and provided a NOAEL, for both the parental animals and the offspring, of 500 mg benzoic acid/kg body weight per day, the highest dose tested. Guidelines for Drinking-water Quality. The Panel considered that the acceptable daily intake (ADI) cannot be derived from a prenatal developmental toxicity study with benzoic acid performed by gavage. SANCO – D1(2007)D/412774. In the oxidation reaction, several by-products are formed: benzaldehyde, benzyl alcohol and benzyl benzoate. 2016. The chemical reaction is catalysed by metal ions, which are present at low concentrations in drinking water. Benzoic acid (C7H6O2) was first described in the 16th century. Summary record of the Standing Committee on the Food Chain and Animal Health. The Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety reported results of analysis of benzene content in 16 soft drinks containing both sodium benzoate and ascorbic acid; 13 samples contained nondetectable levels of benzene and three samples contained benzene at levels between 0.7 and 4.7 mg/L 45). Benzoic acid preservative prevents or delays nutritional losses due to microbiological, enzymatic, or chemical changes of foods during its shelf life. Journal für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit [Journal of Consumer Protection and Food Safety], 5, 443–452. }); Benzoic acid hazards – formation of benzene from benzoic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid, Benzoic acid. The European Food Safety Authority Panel noted that benzoic acid and its salts may enhance hypersensitivity and/or cause skin reactions in sensitive people. To know more such benzoic acid uses download the BYJU’S – the learning app. Benzoic acid is included in the European Union list of flavorings. Impact on health when sugar is replaced with intense sweeteners in soft drinks, “saft” and nectar. Peroxides are reaction intermediates. Chang P and Ku K, 1993. Benzoic acid is an ingredient in many cosmetic products, such as lipsticks. The European Food Safety Authority Panel noted that the formation of benzene in beverages containing benzoic acid or its salts as preservatives is linked to certain formulations, such as ascorbic acid in the presence of metallic ions and also to conditions of storage. Benzoic acid is a commonly used food preservative appropriate for acidic foods in the form of sodium benzoate. EC (European Commission), 2007a. Potassium benzoate is obtained in high yield by reacting an aromatic hydrocarbon solution of benzoic acid, such as that which is obtained from the toluene oxidation process, with potassium hydroxide preferably in concentrated aqueous solution, thereby precipitating solid potassium benzoate 15). Expressed on 24 February 1994. As a kind of antibacterial and antifungal preservative, benzoic acid is widely used in foods and feeds. Volume 100F. McCann D, Barrett A, Cooper A, Crumpler D, Dalen L, Grimshaw K, Kitchin E, Lok K, Porteous L, Prince E, Sonuga-Barke E, Warner JO and Stevenson J, 2007. SCCP/0891/05. Benzoic acid's most common uses are in carbonated beverages, pickles, sauces, and jelly. Benzoic acid is a byproduct of phenylalanine metabolism in bacteria. A four-generation reproductive toxicity study with benzoic acid in the diet in rats was considered by the Panel as the pivotal study and a no observed adverse effect level of 500 mg benzoic acid/kg body weight per day, the highest dose tested, was identified. Cakir R, Cagri-Mehmetoglu A. JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives), 2001. According to industry, ‘production of benzoic acid is by liquid-phase oxidation of toluene in the presence of a cobalt catalyst. December 2013. Cranberries contain as much as 300-1300 mg free benzoic acid per kg fruit 1). Benzoic Acid Chemical Structure Composition. When considering the non-brand-loyal scenario, the main contributing food categories were also processed fruits and vegetables and processed foods for infants; for toddlers, they were unprocessed fruits and vegetables, flavored drinks and processed foods; for children and adolescents, the main contributing food categories were flavored drinks and unprocessed fruits and vegetables and for adults and the elderly, the main contributing food categories were unprocessed fruits and vegetables and coffee, tea, herbal and fruit infusions, chicory. Information on the stability of the salts of the benzoic acid in food is very limited, but the benzoate anion is chemically stable, and degradation in food or reactions with food components are not anticipated, with the exception of the reaction with ascorbic acid under certain conditions (see benzoic acid hazards below). Benzoic Acid has vast applications in varieties of industry uses: Food and beverage additive, preservatives Intermediates for synthesis of other chemicals like Phenol, Benzene etc.. Sodium benzoate is produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium hydroxide 14). Survey of benzene in foods by using headspace concentration techniques and capillary gas chromatography. avoid contact with eyes and other mucous membranes keep away from children do not take by mouth. 2-benzoyl Benzoic Acid 34. Benzoic acid have previously been evaluated by the EU Scientific Committee on Food (SCF) in 1994 3) and 2002 4). The pressure of the liquid discharged from the reactor is reduced to atmospheric, and unreacted toluene is recovered. 0-benzoyl Benzoic Acid 33. It is also present in baby products, skin products, cleansing products, hair and nail products, soaps, bath products, detergents etc. Recently, many studies showed that it could improve the growth and health, which should, at least partially, be derived from the promotion of gut functions, including digestion, absorption, and barrier. Based on read-across, the European Food Safety Authority Panel considered that this conclusion is also applicable for calcium benzoate 22). BAuA (Federal Institute for Occupational Safety and Health), 2011. In conclusion, the acute oral toxicity of benzoic acid is low with LD50 values in the range of 1,200–2,742 mg/kg body weight. Food additives and hyperactive behaviour in 3-year-old and 8/9-year-old children in the community: a randomised, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial. Small amounts of benzene can be formed from benzoic acid in the presence of ascorbic acid and transition metal ions like copper and iron 38). Considering only food categories for which direct addition of benzoic acid-benzoates to food is authorized, the refined exposure to benzoic acid-benzoates (E 210–213) in toddlers and children, exceeded the ADI of 5 mg/kg body weight per day at the high level (95th percentile) in the refined brand-loyal exposure estimate, while, for the non-brand-loyal scenario, the group acceptable daily intake (ADI) was not exceeded in any population group. SCCP (Scientific Committee on Consumer Products), 2005. Several  studies have shown that subgroups of patients already suffering from atopic dermatitis, pruritus, urticaria or persistent rhinitis may be intolerant even to low doses of benzoate. Benzoic acid has a long history of use as an antifungal agent in topical therapeutic preparations such as Whitfield’s ointment (benzoic acid 6% and salicylic acid 3%) 2. It is used in various ways, like manufacturing of insect repellents, below are some uses of benzoic acid in our life. Considering additional exposure from food categories which may contain benzoic acid-benzoates due to carry-over and for which data were available, in the refined brand-loyal exposure scenario, the ADI was exceeded at the high level for all population groups and for infants, toddlers, children and adolescent at the mean. In the non-brand-loyal scenario, the main contributing food categories were flavored drinks and sauces for all population groups. These items range from topical medications and insect sprays to perfumes and dyes. Sorbic and benzoic acid in non-preservative-added food products in Turkey. The results of the available short-term and subchronic studies on benzoic acid and sodium benzoate indicated that the toxicity of benzoic acid and its salts is low with no marked target organ toxicity. The European Food Safety Authority Panel has evaluated benzoic acid as a supporting substance in its opinion on benzyl alcohols, benzaldehydes, a related acetal, benzoic acids and related esters from chemical group 23 and 30 26), in which it was concluded on the basis of the default maximized survey-derived daily intake approach that these substances would not give rise to safety concerns at the estimated levels of intake arising from their use as flavoring substances. The excreted hippuric acid is not highly toxic. Benzoic acid. Furthermore, anaphylaxis and urticaria have also been observed in sensitive individuals following exposure to benzoic acid and its salts at doses below the acceptable daily intake (ADI). The results of the available short-term and subchronic studies on benzoic acid and its salts indicated that their toxicity is low, with no marked target organ toxicity, although high intakes of benzoic acid may lead to disturbances in the acid/base balance, and benzoic acid at high doses may interfere with intermediary metabolism. Mustafa K, Tuge G, Erhan D. Detection of benzoic acid by an amperometric inhibitor biosensor based on mushroom tissue homogenate. SANCO – D1(2007)D/411718. Benzoicum Acidum (Benzoic Acid) is very useful in treating urine symptoms like very smelly urine, discharge of white liquid with urine, alteration in urine color, frequent urination due to diabetes mellitus and other urine related symptoms. 1–48. In the brand-loyal scenario, benzoic acid exposures were from flavored fermented milk products and sauces for infants, flavored fermented milk products, processed fish and fishery products and flavored drinks; for children, adolescents, adults and the elderly, they were flavored drinks, sauces and processed fish and fishery products. Benzoic acid is an extensively used food preservative. Indications of the possible formation of benzene from benzoic acid in foods. This unpublished study showed a LD50 of 2,250 (1,875–2,700) mg benzoic acid/kg body weight. Benzoic acid uses in different forms are: Food with naturally occurring benzoic acid – ripe cloves, most berries and cinnamon. Though benzoic acid is used in cosmetics, dyes, plastics and insect repellents, it is most commonly included in food products as a preservative. Benzoic acid is generally effective in controlling mold and inhibiting yeast growth and also in preventing a wide range of bacterial attacks 17). From the aforementioned studies, the European Food Safety Authority Panel derived an acceptable daily intake (ADI) of 5 mg/kg body weight per day (expressed as benzoic acid) using an uncertainty factor of 100. Moreover, the European Food Safety Authority Panel noted that the available data did not indicate any carcinogenic potential 9). Benzoic acid is frequently used at levels of 0.05 to 0.1 percent in conjunction with sorbic acid. The main food categories  contributing to this exceedance were unprocessed fruits and vegetables and flavored drinks. google_ad_client: "ca-pub-9759235379140764", Ortho-benzoylbenzoic Acid 14. Benzoic acid and salicylic acid may also be used for other purposes not listed in this medication guide. EC (European Commission), 2007b. Your email address will not be published. In multiple bacterial assays and in experiments with mammalian cells, benzoic acid tested negative, although in vivo trials were not found. The purity of toluene is critical because sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, phenols and olefins inhibit the oxidation reaction. To help unclog the pores, it even dries off dead skin cells. In its opinion on the re-evaluation of calcium carbonate (E 170) as a food additive 16), the European Food Safety Authority Panel noted that limestone may contain aluminium at concentrations up to 190 mg/kg. Reaction by-products include benzaldehyde, acetic acid, formic acid and benzyl alcohol. Benzoic acid is generally recognized as safe; however, adverse effects related to allergic reactions, such as asthma, urticaria, asthma, rhinitis, anaphylactic shock, metabolic acidosis, and convulsions, have been reported in sensitive individuals following oral, dermal, or inhalation exposure to benzoic acid 10), 11). The European Food Safety Authority Panel noted that the available carcinogenicity studies on benzoic acid and its salts did not indicate any carcinogenic potential, although they were not conducted in accordance with current test guidelines and had deficiencies both in terms of design and reporting. August 2011. Studies on benzene formation in beverages. The European Food Safety Authority Panel noted the absence of any indication of genotoxicity of benzoic acid and its salts in vivo, together with the negative results of limited carcinogenicity studies in rats and mice. From the regulatory benzoic acid maximum level exposure assessment scenario, the main contributing food categories to the total mean exposure estimates for infants and toddlers were flavored fermented milk products. Food additive (e number) Treatment of metabolic disease Antiseptic agent Pharmaceutic aid: Preservative Qi P., Hong H., Liang X., Liu D. Assessment of benzoic acid levels in milk in China. 23) study that has concluded that exposure to two mixtures of four synthetic colors plus sodium benzoate, as a preservative, in the  diet resulted in increased hyperactivity in 3-year-old and 8- to 9-year-old children in the general population. It helps in the prevention of bacterial infection. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 41, 693–695. Pubchem20125 35. Benzyl Alcohol, Benzoic Acid and its salts, and Benzyl Benzoate are used in a wide variety of cosmetics and personal care products, including baby products, bath products, soaps and detergents, eye makeup, blushers, cleansing products, make up products, as well as hair, nail and skin care products. An acute study with benzoic acid by gavage in male and female mice was available to the European Food Safety Authority Panel. Scientific Opinion of the Panel on Food Additives, Flavourings, Processing Aids and Food Contact Materials (AFC) on a request from the Commission on the results of the study by McCann et al. Benzoic acid has various uses, the most common of which is its use as a preservative in food and personal care products. The results of short-term and subchronic studies on benzoic acid and its salts indicate that their toxicity is low. Biotechnol. Skp 10a 16. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4353. An optical test strip for the detection of benzoic acid in food. Along with other acne-fighting additives, some products contain sulphur, such as resorcinol. JECFA (Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives), 1997. In Germany, the concentrations of benzene measured in non-alcoholic beverages were below the EU drinking water limit of 1 μg/L while higher concentrations were found in previous years 46). Held in Brussels on 14 December 2007. It was first prepared from coal tar. (2007) on the effect of some colours and sodium benzoate on children’s behaviour. The drug used to treat skin irritation and inflammation caused by burns, insect bites, fungal infections, or eczema is benzoic acid and topical salicylic acid (for the skin). Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of benzoic acid as feed additive for pigs for fattening when used as acidity regulator and all animal species when used as a flavouring. Benzoic acid and salicylic acid topical (for the skin) is a combination medicine used to treat skin irritation and inflammation caused by burns, insect bites, fungal infections, or eczema. Proposal for harmonised classification and labelling. Chemical Agents and related Occupations. EFSA Journal 2016;14(3):4433 https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2016.4433, SCF (Scientific Committee on Food), 1994. 2011;11(8):7302-13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3231706/. 2-benzoyl-benzoic Acid 13. The issue was considered in the meetings of the Standing Committee of the Food Chain and Animal Health in July and December 2007 43), 44). doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2011.2318. 1-13. Benzyl derivatives. O-benzoyl-benzoic Acid 32. An acute study by gavage with benzoic acid in albino rats was available to the European Food Safety Authority Panel. BfR (Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung [Federal Institute for Risk Assessment]), 2005. Benzoic acid E210 is used as a food preservative that inhibits the growth of mold, yeast, and some bacteria. Therefore, the European Food Safety Authority Panel considered that combining ascorbic acid with benzoic acid in soft drinks could lead to the formation of benzene from benzoic acid. Nsc 6646 15. Food Control. Additionally, benzoic acid has been reviewed as a pesticide-active substance 31). Scientific Opinion on Flavouring Group Evaluation 20, Revision 4 (FGE.20Rev4): Benzyl alcohols, benzaldeydes, a related acetal, benzoic acid, and related esters from chemical group 23 and 30. In a typical modern process, the oxidation is conducted at 165 °C and 0.9 MPa. Annex VI report. Preparation of potassium benzoate. 909 73-84. SCCNFP/0532/01 final. Other esters, including benzyl formate and benzyl acetate, are also present. And the maximum concentrations reported for benzoic acid added to food for preservation purposes were in the range of 2,000 mg/kg of food 18). (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({ Benzoic acid is generally recognised as safe. Originally the oxidation reaction was carried out at 140 °C and ca. Benzoic acid is often conjugated to glycine in the liver and excreted as hippuric acid. To remove phthalic acid, whose presence is not allowed for food uses, treatment with amines and rinsing is required. Benzoic acid and sodium benzoate have also been evaluated by the Scientific Committee on Cosmetic Products and Non-Food Products Intended for Consumers 29) and the Scientific Committee on Consumer Products 30). Diseases like ringworm and athlete ’ s foot Standing Committee on Food contact materials, Enzymes, Flavourings processing... Been used with salicylic acid may also be used for fungal infections of skin, skin fungal,. Esters in many plant and Animal species and insect sprays to perfumes and dyes conjugated! Dead skin cells feed Additives 20 ), 2001 by-products are formed: benzaldehyde, alcohol! The German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment 42 ) with sorbic acid Food.. Is recovered Switzerland: benzoic acid uses pp controlling mold and inhibiting yeast growth also. With other acne-fighting Additives, some Products contain sulphur, such as preservatives,,! Is conjugated to glycine in the presence of ascorbic acid and its salts rapidly! 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